Additional tools to assist in the IH process:
USEFUL OSHA HEALTH STANDARDS
CHEMICALS WITH COMPREHENSIVE STANDARDS
1910.1001 – Asbestos
1910.1017 – Vinyl chloride
1910.1018 – Inorganic arsenic
1910.1025 – Lead
1910.1027 – Cadmium
1910.1028 – Benzene
1910.1029 – Coke oven emissions
1910.1043 – Cotton dust
1910.1044 – 1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
1910.1045 – Acrylonitrile
1910.1047 – Ethylene oxide
1910.1048 – Formaldehyde
1910.1050 – Methylenedianiline
1910.1051 – 1, 3 Butadiene
1910.1052 – Methylene chloride
1915.1001 – Asbestos in Shipbuilding
1926.62 – Lead in Construction
1926.1101 – Asbestos in Construction
1926.1127 – Cadmium in Construction
1910.94 – Ventilation
1910.107 – Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials
1910.108 – Dip tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids
1910.120 – Hazardous waste operations and emergency response
1910.152 – Process Safety Management
1910.252 – Welding, cuffing and brazing
1910.1200 – Hazard communication
1910.1450 – Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in labs
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
1910.132 – General requirements
1910.133 – Eye and face protection
1910.134 – Respiratory protection
1910.136 – Footwear
1910.138 – Gloves
1910.141 – Sanitation; lunchrooms
1910.151 – Medical services and first aid
1910.95 – Occupational noise exposure
1910.96 – Ionizing radiation
1910.97 – Nonionizing radiation
1904 – Recording and reporting occupational injuries and illnesses
1910.1020 – Access to medical and monitoring data
STANDARD INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE RECOMMENDATIONS
1) Provide employees immediately with short-term protection against the toxic material(s) by providing the following properly selected, fitted and maintained personal protective and emergency equipment:
a) Respirators see OSHA Reg. 1910.134
b) Gloves see OSHA Reg. 1910.138
c) Chemical-protective clothing see OSHA Reg. 1910.132
d) Chemical splash goggles see OSHA Reg. 133
e) Chemical-protective boots see OSHA Reg. 1910.136
f) Eye-wash fountain — see OSHA Reg. 1910.151
g) Body-wash shower — see OSHA Reg. 1910.151
h) Spill clean-up kits
2) Permanently reduce exposure to the toxic material(s) by instituting the following engineering and work
a) Substitute a less toxic material
b) Isolate or enclose the operation
c) Install local exhaust ventilation
d) Provide dilution ventilation
e) Eliminate skin contact
3) The following elements of an effective respirator program should be instituted see OSHA
a) Written standard operating procedures governing the selection and use of respirators
b) Proper selection on the basis of the hazards to which workers are exposed
c) Training of users in proper use and limitations of respirators
d) Assignment of respirators to individual workers for their exclusive use
e) Regular cleaning and disinfecting after each day’s use
f) Storage in a convenient, clean and sanitary location
g) Inspection during cleaning and replacement of worn or deteriorated parts
h) Surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or stress
i) Regular evaluation to determine the continued effectiveness of the program
j) Annual review of respirator user’s medical status for physical ability to perform the work and use the equipment
4) Improve housekeeping as follows:
a) Keep floors and work surfaces free of visible contaminants see OSHA Reg. 1910.22(a)
b) Eliminate dry sweeping
c) Eliminate the use of compressed air for cleaning – see OSHA Reg. 190.242(b)
d) Use a HEPA vacuum for cleaning
e) Use wet wiping or mopping for cleaning
f) Clean up spills promptly using properly trained and equipped employees see OSHA Reg. 1910.120
g) Eliminate vermin – see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(a)(5)
5) Improve lunchroom, locker and lavatory facilities as follows:
a) Prohibit eating in work areas see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(g)
b) Require vacuuming of clothing before entering lunchroom
c) Keep lunchroom clean see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(g)
d) HEPA vacuum lunchroom daily
e) Provide separate locker facilities for work and street clothing see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(e)
f) Assure that employees wash hands and face prior to eating, drinking or smoking
g) Keep lavatories clean
h) Provide soap, towels and warm water in lavatories — see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(c)(2)
i) Provide additional lavatories — see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(c)
j) Provide additional hand-washing facilities
k) Provide showers
l) Assure that employees shower before going home
m) Keep showers clean
n) Provide soap, towels and warm water in showers — see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(c)(3)
o) Provide potable drinking water – see OSHA Reg. 1910.141(b)
6) Assure that employees receive comprehensive information and training concerning hazardous chemicals — see OSHA Reg. 1910.1200 and state Right-to-Know Laws.
7) Maintain an OSHA Log of Injuries and Illnesses and post Summary every February – see OSHA Reg. 1904.
8) Notify employees of their rights to obtain copies of medical and monitoring data and provide such copies to employees upon their request— see OSHA Reg. 1910.1020.
9) Form and hold regular meetings of a joint worker-management health and safety committee.
CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE
1) EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FOR AIRBORNE EXPOSURE
a) Exposure Sources (rank high/medium/low)
i) Types and amounts of chemicals in use or created by combustion or decomposition.
ii) Visible leaks, spills or emissions from process equipment, vents, stacks or from containers.
iii) Settled dust that may be re-suspended into the air.
iv) Open containers from which liquids may evaporate.
v) Heating or drying that may make a chemical more volatile or dusty.
vi) Odors. Consult an odor threshold table to get an estimate of concentration.
vii) Do air monitoring where the presence of a contaminant is suspected but cannot be verified by sight or smell.
viii) Visualize exposure by taking photographs or videotape.
b) Job Functions (estimate hours/day)
i) Manual handling in general.
ii) Active verb job tasks such as grinding, scraping, sawing, cutting, sanding, drilling, spraying, measuring, mixing, blending, dumping, sweeping, wiping, pouring, crushing, filtering, extracting, packaging.
c) Control Failures
i) Visible leaks from ventilation hoods, ductwork, and collectors.
ii) Hoods that are located too far from the source or that are missing or broken.
iii) Ductwork that is clogged, dented, or has holes.
iv) Insufficient make-up air to replace exhausted air.
v) Contamination inside respirators.
vi) Improperly selected, maintained or used respirator.
vii) Lack or inadequate housekeeping equipment.
viii) Lack of or inadequate doffing and laundering procedures for clothing contaminated by dust.
2) EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FOR ACCIDENTAL INGESTION
a) Exposure Sources (rank high/medium/low)
i) Types and amounts of chemicals in use or created by combustion or decomposition. Solids are of primary concern.
ii) Contamination of work surfaces that may spread to food, beverage, gum, cigarettes, hands or face.
iii) Contamination of hands or face that may enter mouth.
iv) Do wipe sampling to verify the presence of a contaminant on work surfaces, hands, face, and so forth.
b) Control Failures
i) Contamination of inside of respirator that may enter mouth.
ii) Contamination of lunchroom surfaces that may spread to food, beverage, gum, cigarettes, hands or face.
3) EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SKIN CONTACT AND ABSORPTION
a) Exposure Sources
i) Types and amounts of chemicals in use or created by combustion or decomposition. Check dermal absorption potential. Do not rely upon OSHA SKIN notations. Assume most liquids will penetrate skin.
ii) Consider whether one chemical can act as a “carrier” for other chemicals.
iii) Visualize dermal exposure by taking photographs or videotape.
b) Job Functions
i) Dipping hands into material.
ii) Handling of wet objects or rags.
c) Control Failures
i) Contamination of inside of gloves.
ii) Improperly selected, maintained or used gloves.
iii) Improperly selected, maintained or used chemical protective clothing.
iv) Lack of or inadequate facilities for washing of hands and face close to work areas.
v) Lack of or inadequate shower facilities.